arctic methane.

Arctic methane is the biggie, on a ten year timescale x120 more potent then CO2 … this we know already from many sources online, I mean blogs and material from sensible people not alarmist junk of which the latter I tend to avoid.

Explaining to a new friend yesterday its not just the two and three deg C rise by at my guess 2026 (I’ve a £1k wager on this for 3C+ by end 2026) that will in itself hurt us ie its just a hotter day to endure … BUT its the effect on world interconnected natural systems with locked in feedbacks and associated drives that respond at such fine-scale limits that will alter this biosphere to become un-livable, this literally one thou inch thick biosphere on an eight inch diameter childs football.  This is thinner than any layer of modern varnish, more like the old fashioned shellac.  Already the jet stream has split into two loops and is streaming hot moist air over the Arctic. My guess is that the end of the greenland ice sheet I quote “By 2100” as bandied in the general press is woefully overestimated; the nature of ice melt is a law unto itself.

Note that of recent years no-one is bandying the expression that ‘nature is resilient’ anymore …

8 inch dia = 8k miles dia of planet Earth

therefore .001 in (one thou inch) = 1 mile approx.

cigarette paper = 0.001 in (copier paper is 0.004 in)

And still diesel drivers idle their engines all day, at work, at supermarkets whilst waiting, during lunchbreaks etc etc.

So much if not all of our CO2 to O conversion shuts down at increased CO2 levels, it does not / can not ‘rise to the occasion’, ie green plants and forests, diatoms, algae.  Likewise my particular ‘hobby horse’ and fascination with diatoms is a critical factor, the irony of using ancient deposits of oil and gas mainly derived from diatoms has led to their own and our demise, see also the loss of the symbiotic relationship of diatoms to bryozoans ie coral reef.  No-one has ever seen with the naked eye a diatom yet nearly all of our petrol and oil carbon lifestyle is based upon them.





Northern Canada: +22C when it should be zero.

Yikes, ultra creepy temp increase  … anything that says by 2100 Greenland Ice Massif will be gone … more like 2026 I’d say. This end of 2026 point in time is when i would think we are somewhere at a minimum of  3 to 4C global warming, you can wave goodbye to anything like a piddling 2C prediction … quite laughable sticking to 2C considering the interconnectedness of natures climate systems and feedback loops. If I’m not correct then I will donate £1k GBP to charities, no quibble.  Remember, the accelerating nature of ice melt is working against us, any child knows wake up next morning and it can often be an exasperating sight to see all the ice and snow mostly gone overnight as often happens here in northern England. Realise too that with increased ice-melt the freshwater adds to increasing humidity and rainfall. Therefore no albedo effect ie the reflective nature of a white landscape is lost and ad infinitum heat absorbancy spirals way beyond most publicly available predictions. Permafrost becomes mush, methane tumbles upwards from microbial, geological and thawing hydrate; better sort some space for all the oxygen cylinders we will need.

And then what ?


Heres a pic of what its like up there in NWT …


Postscript; thinking of ice loss, not even the term logarithmic in relationship to volume decay is applicable when the temperature is rapidly increasing as in the North West Territories cited above, any ‘steady state’ conformity to plotting arithmetic curves or laws of decay goes out the window or into the newly formed lake. Again, thinking of childhood observation of a quick thaw here in temperate England, all the melt seemed to merely sink into the earth itself which in a permafrost situation up north is the last thing we need. So therefore in my mind most ‘predictions’ are invalid, unreal because thawing ice behaves in its own unique way. Its back to what I fear by 2026.

At least i’m doing ‘something’ even if its quite by chance or the new circumstances of my wife passing away three years ago which has enabled me to do things differently, ie much reduced mileage in the car as I’m happier being nearer to home (I’m the ideal profile for an electric vehicle) …  washing machine bust and won’t be replaced, plastic bucket and a clothes line do all i want as theres no real dirt or grime to remove. Keeping the computer switched off most hours also helps in several ways, use books more, increase pleasure in sketching, copying, taking notes, memorise things … we don’t always need to be up on the latest news online, theres much human knowledge that is as good now as it was forty or a hundred years ago. I’ve no tv through choice and this suits me, bbc r3 and 4 provide sufficient, no mobile either and I’ve uninstalled the wireless remote heating thermostat. The only modern luxury I wish to retain is my central heating system and the pleasure of a hot bath !

Spinning and tumbling clothes dry here in England can be severely cut back and perhaps eliminated in many households, the washing line does all these things; particularly as these last few years we seldom have the rainfall here in NE England that we used to have.

A strange thing to talk about ….

On bbc r4 this week we had ‘Inside Science’ devote a segment to the prospect of the increasing methane levels in the next few years, Professor Euan Nisbet from Royal Holloway University of London emphasising tropical wetland methane but if my ears are working  correctly never once mentioned Arctic methane.

I am assuming tropical methane is a more steady state influence yet the Arctic variety in its three forms ie geological, microbial and thawing hydrates is on an astoundingly high trajectory of growth ie explosions of methane off the chart so to speak.

bbc radio is often a bit wonky and yet another example and shame upon the presentation of the subject.

I’ve blogged on Arctic methane previously, plenty of tags.

One cannot help but feel we are plunged into darkness whilst having just entered a strange new room, our steps are tiny, we will tentatively, timidly grasp at anything.


I find it profoundly irritating (and I refuse to take part) that we have to ‘log in’ to use the listen again facilityfor bbc radio, this is new and a bloody nuisance …

UK Guardian newspaper on climate change …

Maybe they got it wrong, 30-40C I think should read F for Farenheit. This is why fifteen years ago I gave up reading the Grauniad and FT at weekends, cos sometimes they are just plain wrong; I used to see this in relation to design, gardening and such matters. Why should I waste my time reading contrived tripe from a junior. Remember, a lot of editorial / articles are there to fill the gaps between the ads or promote some pundit, personality or viewpoint.

At least I hope they got it wrong, at the moment I read Arctic warming as say 10-15deg Centigrade. And remember open sea will now absorb more heat than reflective ice, increased turbulence enhancing the effect of warming the subsea permafrost, also ice now has particles of smoke and a black algal or mold growth that also increases melt rate.

* from Paul Beckwith the first vid below confirms Arctic as of Feb 2018 is plus 30 C

All the same, the Grauniad is telling us (I need to corroborate this from elsewhere) that in Feb they now do not dip below freezing in the Arctic during the night, which really is all we need to know. This is catastrophic …. you’ve got ten years, don’t expect more. Yet still there is climate change denial! Why are ppl so dumbed down?

As Paul Beckwith tells us and many others now likewise the Jet Stream is much altered and has split and loops over the Arctic, again a disastrous development; bringing warm air and moisture to where it should not be.  Ocean plankton is not converting CO2 as it did, the Pacific is inedible, food chains are dieing completely. From the median upcurve last year was a dip, so it looks this year 2018 will be the worst ever for fires, sky darkening, reduced crop yield, increased methane release ie geological, thawing hydrates and microbial. And on top of that we have idiots spraying the skies with chem trails that destroy ozone and yes third day running here its another chem trail day.

We read that the Greenland ice sheet will take 500 years to go, I think that is BS … no more than fifty and probably less; we can call it the Swiss Cheese effect.  I’m an engineer and am used to looking at things and working intuitively. Rivers of surface meltwater are running fiercely underground and it will soon all melt, likewise in the south the Antarctic where unseen undercutting of the vast ice massif itself will shock us all when it starts folding into the sea bigtime. Its reckoned its at least a global 60m sea level rise.  IPCC models are useless, no account of methane and a childlike incorporation of large scale carbon capture that has yet to be invented. You have now entered a crazy Orwellian world, where trump and Scott Pruitt ban the term climate change and global warming is demoted to a trivial tweet.  Imagine, trump could build another wall, say around his beloved NY and every other coastal city. Thats why he is so blindly hellbent on getting the wall with Mexico to keep out frantic mass migration and to hand back massive amounts of tax to the already filthy rich, he knows fine well the future is dire with climate change and hence so adamantly will not acknowledge as such. Hitler and Goebbels will be looking up from their special place in hell and thinking ‘Thats my boy’ !

Luckily there are photographs of frozen places and glaciers from a century ago, these illustrate the amount of ice loss. A lot of scientific data only goes back to say the 1970’s or the 50’s.

A spelling mistake on I think CNBC an hour ago … ‘oars are quarried’ !!  …. So I sent an email. Makes you wonder if 50% of journalism is just trash. Ores we know are metallic elements and I reckon most are mined. Gives a false impression to the young! Also ‘opencast’ is nearer than quarried if its above surface extraction.

Yesterday Friday was a full day of climate control ie chem trails here in NE England and looking at the brown hue to some phoney clouds I wonder if they’ve been spraying overnight?? Looks like trails a hour or two old merging into haze, not many so far today. We need websites to be logged in to and data to be collected. And a formalised reporting system or screen report card ie number of trails, time when first noticed, weather before trails or at start of observation, duration, effects and the receiving expert can fill in weather fronts and barometric data.

Who would have thought climate, weather systems are so finely balanced, so sensitive and so interconnected! And all have existed for far longer before some squatting proto hominid banged two rocks together somewhere in Africa or Asia. In the next few years people will turn to religion of whatever form, Christ, Buddha, Allah, their ancestors, shamanism, Dao, Tao, nature or hedonism and we’ll see more Bible quotes thats for sure  …’As ye sow ye shall reap’ I think is the expression, quite apt actually considering Monsanto wants everyone to adopt their disease and drought resisitant GM crops which will actually be all that you can grow for the ‘lucky’ ten percent that persist.

Note at 09:40 Pauls shows the latest data as plus 30C for the Arctic as of right now.

Youtube often only provides a layer or slice of what is available, successive sessions over days often yields new material as with below.


Here below is another unexpected find and immensely worthwhile too, Paul R Erlich; I have his book ‘The Machinery of Nature’ and finding this vid pushes me to get more of his books.

Remember:- a rise of 2 or 3C sounds nothing but it is the trigger for a whole cascade of weather and natural world re-jigs, all interconnected and all now set into self re-inforcing feedback loops. Our refrigerator the Arctic has gone, circulation ie Jet Stream is on walkabout and has split into two loops over the Arctic, natural CO2 conversion failing ie from plankton; western lifestyle, sewage, water, electricity, petroleum availability all highly vulnerable as Paul outlines.  No wonder trump wants to and is ramping up the Military.

The present aim of Continuous Economic Growth is not sustainable, I personally do not think human kind can be changed, the better off in this world will not relinquish their advantaged lifestyles. We will ‘go down’ consuming.


Please realise though 2C sounds nothing it has triggered along with higher CO2 levels our weather systems to go into a self increasing feedback mode from a previous ‘steady state’ and this planets lifeforms to be severely thrust into turmoil. Polar bears will soon only exist as memory, can you see any bees in summer? We are losing Arctic and Antarctic ice, at the North Pole it is stupidly over-heated and now exists only as water, ie this is now and is plain fact. Constant chem trail activity hinders solar power, destroys ozone, hinders food production. Please … BE AWARE !!!

Note I’m quoting from the last link above  … More than 100 previous studies have shown that elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide decrease the nutritional value of plants, such as wheat and rice. unquote.

On the ball: Climate Change with Prof Kevin Anderson.

We need more like this man, Prof Kevin Anderson. He knows fine well his viewers are served well by his quick delivery, in the talk below he gets through lots of points because there are lots of points  … its called survival of the planet !!!

He’s certainly bright and like a breath of fresh air; a genuine hero among men.

I implore anyone and everyone to listen through completely the above presentation. He draws in the many factors all feeding into the dilemma of trying to lower carbon consumption when the dangers of hubris, of trump, of the slowness of governments and how the better off in this world are most reluctant to let go of present lifestyle. A good point he makes is realising how our affluent carbon lifestyle, air travel etc is destroying the chance of the poor accessing even a basic supply of electricity. So next time air travel is booked just think how the debit of carbon is hindering someone, a family on the other side of the world. I personally do not think the top consumers can shift their mentality, nor realise the urgency. Its an 80/20 rule and it fits. Likewise, IPCC forecasts and modelling are so ‘out of step’ with real-life data ie incorporating carbon capture when as yet the technology hasn’t been invented for the large scale required;  likewise with no IPCC mention of the expected methane ‘time bomb’. Their figures will be shredded to ‘so much confetti’.

Its going to be very difficult to get the World to accept new outlooks and targets, the Economists constant desire for growth in untenable with climate changing so fundamentally. Its a bit like my experience of ‘managers’ in industry, often its always too late.

We need a few hundred more people like Prof Kevin Anderson on this planet. Heres his blog …

Also …


For those that can stand a little more reading  …. heres a useful quote speaking with Amy Goodman ie

I quote: KEVIN ANDERSON: Well, if you think about it, the renewable industry itself requires lots of people working in it. But also, we have to retrofit the existing infrastructure that we have in our society. If you look at the U.S., it’s very high energy consumption. That needs to change rapidly. That means retrofitting buildings and properties, people’s houses. It means much greater electrification of the energy system than we see today. There’s just a huge amount of construction work, engineering work, design work. You know, this is about really a 30-year jobs program for all of the industrialized parts of the world to transition from the very high-carbon infrastructure we have now to the low-carbon infrastructure of tomorrow. So, in that sense, surely, if his commitment to the Dust Belt was really a sincere one and he had some innovative capacity, he would see that the climate change agenda is a jobs agenda for the people that voted for him. end of quote.

In other words we need to get ‘on the ball’ and be doing all of this NOW.

Its particulary frustrating as trump is so incapable of any of this, so adamant in his refusal to acknowledge what everyone else knows; that is a statement that sums him up doesn’t it so many ways!    Not even trumps usual derisory  … SAD… is sufficient to describe the direction he is heading (ie backwards)  more accurately CRIMINAL in his neglect and insistence on reacting as if uninformed yet always able to hear and implement the dinosaur oil and coal lobby! The boy that couldn’t read …..

And to contradict trump and his cronies … theres no such thing as clean coal.

From Kevin Anderson above I quote …  If … “he had some innovative capacity” unquote, that just about sums trump up, nothing good, nothing positive, nothing created as a step forward for humanity, just a bizarre yearning by a person with an extremely contrived hair make-over to be back in the 1930’s when society was rough and stratified, when greed and impulse were fed quite easily if pockets were deep enough and political ambition fed upon upset and yearning; for the ordinary God fearing person it was not an easy a time to live through and then we had ’39-45. The sad apology trump despises science, data and learning; doing his best to run down, shift or dismiss scientists of the EPA through the Grim Reaper aka Scott Pruitt. I’d describe trump with his refusal of scientific data and learned educated opinion, hatred of minorities and folk of other colour or religious persuasion as a strange repugnant mix of Mao, Hitler and a hundred other despots throughout history.

Be vary of trump wanting a war, he’s doing his best to set nations and beliefs against each other; then as Naomi Klein sagely points out all manner of restrictions and laws will appear that a short while ago would have seemed so unthinkable, so draconian.



page 3 – weather modification


Yesterday Feb 13th here northern UK a bright blue sky earlier in the morning (uh-uh …. a likely chem trail day?) ….  I never got time to see the sky from a more open aspect until late afternoon, hey presto parallel tracks in the sky of much faded aircraft trails depositing something un-natural. The usual hazy non-natural effect dulling what should have been a brighter afternoon. This really annoys me and its not easy to find definite explanations, like the clouds themselves the answers are mostly ‘hazy’.


California burned in a most un-natural way last summer and they have suffered chem trail deposition I assume for decades. And yet its still an intense drought. So where is the logic, where is the integrity of the so-called explanations that we are being expected to ‘swallow’. I’m assuming aluminium nano-particles have drifted to earth and aided the incendiary effect. Likewise its thought childhood autism my stem from these metals. Note I preface with ‘I assume’ or ‘in my opinion’ … I do not offer up data as truth when its merely my own conjecture or merely a ‘could be’. but as can be seen by anyone that reads these notes I do have a brain; increasingly rare in this age of successive tv generations.

The so-called explanations as to why these chem trails are allowed or their function do not ‘stack up’.

I’m a trifle tired of broaching ‘climate change’ to what I assume are reasonably intelligent and switched on ppl and getting  pushed back as alarmist or the dreaded term ‘conspiracy theory’, not far short of my hatred of the use of ‘cool’. Perhaps I don’t circulate among the right people, theres too much fantasy in the world now, too much disconnect from reality, as to how we make a living;  an absurd desire for a degree, often a degree of ‘nothing’ . Unfortunately we live in ‘interesting times’. As Orwell predicted mass media manipulation has exploded and all thanks to online, spin so extreme as to be outright lies, slogans and vague feel-good homilies (MAGA) that bear no relation ship to the outright wrecking from trump. Just as with Orwells ‘1984’ we are so easily tracked and profiled. I’ve known some ppl object to ID cards, I’m fine with the idea, its with our electronic connectivity thats the real danger. The latest absurd ‘must have’ electric smart meters are to my mind quite obscene and the ultimate BS.

So, how do farmers, raisers of livestock, growers of crops and fruit and insects themselves (ie the remaining 25% from forty years ago) view a future of engineered and therefore dull days?   If we’ve lost that many insects and pollinators then the outlook is either none or dominant species; likewise the loss of diatoms and plankton, essential for CO2>O conversion and the production of DMS a gas that is tied in with natures way of cloud formation.

Sea level rise is a ‘given’, anyone now in SFO, NY, London, Shanghai must have an increasing nagging doubt as to how things will look in ten years. The arctic has lost its sea ice but its Greenland and the Antarctic that will give us the ‘bulk’ in rising sea levels. The IPCC that brings together the nations of the world is so out of step, so lagging behind the curve as to be as much a hindrance as a benefit. On youtube we find the IPCC predicts summer sea ice in the arctic will disappear by 2080 – its gone NOW !!! Likewise IPCC predictions scheduled for 2050 – 2100 are happening right now. Look at the Prof Peter Wadhams vid in my prev post ie page 2. Heres a link …. IPCC predictions are dangerously slow.

The point of this blog and the time I expend is that I believe my reading of the available material ‘my viewpoint’ is the right one and I use my words to counter what I think is misinformation. For instance ice melt at the Poles, the links and vids prove that rivers running where it should be all silent and frozen and glaciers melting at alarming rates are the evidence for our own eyes, not some blinkered denial from ppl that perhaps cannot even read a book. In other words are of very limited ability in processing and assimilating information. If a person hasn’t got the hunger to have books then I seriously doubt they are qualified to argue with me. Its commonplace to go to a house and theres not a book in sight, no papers, no pens, no note-taking, no retention of anything, perhaps no thoughts of any value. I just could not live in such a barren and passive environment!


Postscript 17th May 2018. Regarding media manipulation. Maybe half a dozen times to different people I’ve pointed upwards to the sky not really getting anywhere and today it was a revelation.

“Oh you don’t believe in that mind control” ….


“Of course not but what I am saying is that those straight lines that haze and merge are not conventional aircraft trails, they’re full of aluminium and organic growers are having problems with it, its also why California burned the way it did.”

(Remember …. Monsantos GM patents include aluminium resistance).

So who the heck is talking abt mind control? As with the first two people I mentioned this to and avid Fox News fans, as I did determine from that encounter there is concious effort to broadcast material that ridicules the ‘look at the chemtrail activists’. That indeed is nasty and explains why its so difficult to get ppl to look up and take notice. Thats why its so difficult, they have been set against any such enquiry by it being framed in the media as a crackpot notion. Framed to automatically be seen as a nutcase enthusiasm. You see, theres no tv in this house so how wld I know their prior knowledge is so affected, so conditioned to ridicule my concern?

page 2 – an overview.

The interconnectedness of the natural world and its conformance to basic physical laws is quite astounding. Never before has 2+2=4 been so frightening.

Everything that I write on this blog is told to me as data based, nothing conjectural.

The planet that we’ve had so far is the result of a ‘steady state’ system of only minor fluctuations, now that we’ve advanced since the Industrial Revolution with CO2 release and massive loss of natural CO2 conversion to O (ie forests, ocean plankton, diatoms etc) we have ‘upset the plate of marbles’ and they are careering all over the kitchen floor. Not the best analogy but sort of true in how so many things are happening at once.

The Arctic is rising 10 or 12 degree C above global average, becoming a hothouse of heat absorption, water turbulence, food chain loss, loss of species and soon to be realised release of methane from geological, terrestial and subsea permafrost – methane as at present frozen as hydrate or capped by ice. Ice is darkening due to smoke particles from increasing number of wildfires and growth of a black algae, all accelerating heat absorption and hence thawing. Meltwater pools are a disastrous source of water flow now penetrating deep beneath the surface to render a swiss cheese effect. Methane is twenty to a hundredfold more potent as a greenhouse gas as CO2 depending upon timeframe. Methane will also result from microbial activity as permafrost is now actively thawing. Theres more carbon in the East Siberian Ice Shelf (a much feared and inevitable source of methane) than all the forests of the world and that is a lot of material for microbial anerobic activity, ie without oxygen the product being methane.

The IPCC as far as I am aware do not even include methane release in their climate modelling and predictions, therefore their scribblings are rendered useless. Already we are beyond the set limits for temperature increase and next year looks to be a marked spike in extreme weather events as we cross the median of the accelerating upcurve, in other words ‘we are due one’.  The worlds Governments look to and abide as much as they can to the IPCC, I suppose its better than nothing in drawing some form of cohesive outlook but nowhere anywhere near enough. For donald j trump to walk away from the Paris Agreement and deliberately set the clock back fifty years in the proposed extraction and consumption of carbon energy he is indeed either a wilful puppet, evil, or both. Modern life is addicted to personal transport and low cost air travel, the latter I have been opposed to for decades, theres no need for ordinary people to ‘take as commomplace’ this luxury. The aviation lobby is very powerful and will still be insisting on dominace whilst the corpse of this planet twitches at the end. Tourists will blow a lot of money and many days of ‘holiday’ but would hardly pick up a book to learn more of it.  Likewise all types of academic conferences entail to my mind so much needless air travel, including those for climate change ! People will be choking on smoke darkened skies and the loss of all marine algal CO2>O and with much diminished forests and will still insist their car based lives must continue without serious modification. Well seeing why djt wants to expand the military of the USA at such an alarming and at first view needless extent.

Likewise theres masses of road lighting over here in the UK where its not even needed ie dual carriageways without any nearby housing or pedestrians and when all cars have headlamps anyway!

Witness China buying or leasing huge tracts of agricultural land worldwide in preparation for the scramble for food as much existing capability is compromised or disappears.

Coupled to ice loss at both Poles, alteration of ocean circulation systems, Pacific die-back, highly questionable weather modification and darkening skies is the change in the jet stream which is now looping and wavering  sideways much distant from its usual accepted pattern and as Paul Beckwith tells us it has split and circulates over the Arctic bringing warm air and moisture where it never existed before. All this is data based and is observable on high quality satellite databases as Paul himself shows us.

I’m very aware here in northern England of the Governmental dulling of the skies and being an active dog owner for a quarter century with a highly flexible working day I look for clear blue skies particularly in the cooler months so as to obtain the best days for our jaunts, but all too often there are the dreaded parallel and cross streaks of (I assume) metal nano-particles being sprayed by aircraft. I have yet to find satisfactory reasons for this (‘seeding’ being a term I dislike as with coral ‘bleaching’) after all California has had decades of this and still suffers droughts. The recent hellish fires in fact seeming to be made worse by I assume aluminium dust that now coats everything. It was un-natural how those fires proceeded.

Also this year we had our first ‘red’ daytime sky, the effect of wildfires in Spain. It was quite surreal, creepy in fact, unfortunately a taste of things to come. In all this artificial dulling of skies and Governmental weather meddling what do farmers think of it?

The staggering fact is that so many or all components of weather systems are interconnected and all function according to both their own and mutually inclusive feedback loops. As an engineer that couldn’t do the maths but went instead ‘the practical route’ I am well aware of the term ‘feedback’ both positive and negative and mechanical and electrical.

Heres mainstream news re Arctic sea ice loss ….


Whenever I see Polar Bears nowadays it hits me so hard, I cannot bear to watch them.

An interesting article …

Professor Peter Wadhams has been collecting data with underwater sonar for forty  years and knows fine well where we are heading as a planet. His book ‘A Farewell to Ice’ caters for the layman as well as including more detailed explanations for those wishing a more scientific understanding of ice, a much more complex varied area than one would first assume.

It is frightening how fast all of this change is occuring and the feedback so utterly immutable. The North pole now in summer is water, no-one can walk it other than on temporary one year winter ice.

An incredible, fascinating book is James Lovelock ‘Gaia’ essential reading, to be learnt and committed to memory, weather systems, feedback, plants, organisms, cells and down to bacteria. James Lovelock as with Peter Wadhams have provided a lifetime of exemplary work and effort into the nature of this planet, these are ‘top men’ of great energy and talent !

Many scientists in the USA and elsewhere are frightened to speak out, this would jeopardise funding, risk their livelihoods and displease their ‘masters’.



to be contd